Govardhan Hill Publishing--Forbidden Archeology--Table of Contents
Forbidden Archeology
The Hidden History of the Human Race

by Michael A. Cremo and Richard L. Thompson

Table of Contents


Introduction and Acknowledgements


1. The Song of the Red Lion

    1.  Darwin Hesitates
    2.  The Neanderthals
    3.  Haeckel and Darwinism
    4.  The Search Begins
    5.  Darwin Speaks
    6.  The Incompleteness of the Fossil Record
    7.  The Geological Timetable
    8.  The Appearance of the Hominids  
    9.  Some Principles of Epistemology
    10. Theories and Anomalous Evidence
    11. The Phenomenon of Suppression

2. Incised and Broken Bones: The Dawn of Deception

    1.  St. Prest, France (Early Pleistocene or Late Pliocene)
    2.  A Modern Example: Old Crow River, Canada (Late Pleistocene)
    3.  The Anza-Borrego Desert, California (Middle Pleistocene)
    4.  Val D'Arno, Italy (Early Pleistocene or Late Pliocene)
    5.  San Giovanni, Italy (Late Pliocene)
    6.  Rhinoceros of Billy, France (Middle Miocene)
    7.  Colline de Sansan, France (Middle Miocene)
    8.  Pikermi, Greece (Late Miocene)
    9.  Pierced Shark Teeth from the Red Crag, England
        (Late Pliocene)
    10. Carved Bone from the Dardanelles, Turkey (Miocene)
    11. Balaenotus of Monte Aperto, Italy (Pliocene)
    12. Halitherium of Pouance, France (Middle Miocene)
    13. San Valentino, Italy (Late Pliocene)
    14. Clermont-Ferrand, France (Middle Miocene)
    15. Carved Shell from the Red Crag, England (Late Pliocene)
    16. Bone Implements from Below the Red Crag, England
        (Pliocene to Eocene)
    17. Dewlish Elephant Trench, England
        (Early Pleistocene to Late Pliocene)
    18. More on Implements from Below the Red Crag
        (Pliocene to Eocene)
    19. Implements from Cromer Forest Bed, England
        (Middle to Early Pleistocene)
    20. Sawn Wood from Cromer Forest Bed, England
        (Middle to Early Pleistocene)
    21. Concluding Words About Intentionally Modified Bone

3. Eoliths

    1.  Anomalously Old Stone Tools
    2.  B. Harrison and the Eoliths of the Kent Plateau, England
        1. Young Harrison
        2. Neoliths and Paleoliths
        3. Eoliths
        4. More on the Geology of the Kent Plateau
        5. The Relative Antiquity of Eoliths and Paleoliths
        6. A. R. Wallace Visits Harrison
        7. More Objections
        8. The British Association Sponsors Excavations
        9. The Royal Society Exhibition
        10. The Problem of Forgery
        11. "The Greater Antiquity of Man"
        12. On the Treatment of Anomalous Evidence
        13. More Honors for Harrison
        14. More Opposition
    3.  Discoveries by J. Reid Moir in East Anglia 
        1. Moir and Harrison
        2. The Age of the Crag Formations
        3. Tools from Below the Red Crag (Pliocene to Eocene)
        4. The Foxhall Finds (Late Pliocene) 
        5. Cromer Forest Bed (Middle or Early Pleistocene)
        6. Moir Versus Haward
        7. Warren's Attack on Moir 
        8. An International Commission of Scientists Decides 
           in Favor of Moir
        9. Continued Opposition 
        10. Silence Ends the Debate 
        11. Recent Negative Evaluations of Moir's Discoveries
        12. A Slightly Favorable Modern Review of Moir's Finds
        13. Positive References to Moir's Finds
    4.  Breuil and Barnes: Two Famous Debunkers of Eoliths
        1. Breuil's Attempt to End the Eolith Controversy 
        2. "Two Truly Exceptional Objects" (Eocene)
        3. An Attempt to Trap Rutot
        4. The Role of Preconception in the Treatment
           of Eolith Evidence
        5. The Double Standard in Operation
        6. How Scientists Cooperated in Propagating Untruths 
           About Eoliths
        7. Breuil Supports Moir
        8. Barnes and the Platform Angle Controversy
    5.  Cement Mill Eoliths?
    6.  Impact of the English Eolithic Industries on Modern Ideas
        of Human Evolution
        1. Eoliths of the Kent Plateau
        2. East Anglian Tools and the African Origins Hypothesis
        3. Recent Pakistan Finds (Plio-Pleistocene Boundary) 
        4. Siberia and India (Early Pleistocene to Late Pliocene)
    7.  Acceptable Eoliths: the Stone Tools of Zhoukoudian
        and Olduvai Gorge
        1. Accepted Implements from Zhoukoudian
           (Middle Pleistocene)
        2. The Oldowan Industry (Early Pleistocene) 
        3. Who Made the Eolithic and Oldowan Implements?
    8.  Recent Examples of Eolithic Implements from the Americas
        1. Standard Views on the Entry of Humans
           into North America
        2. Texas Street, San Diego (Early Late Pleistocene
           to Late Middle Pleistocene)
        3. Louis Leakey and the Calico Site in California
           (Middle Pleistocene)
        4. Toca Da Esperanca, Brazil (Middle Pleistocene)
        5. Alabama Pebble Tools
        6. Monte Verde, Chile (Late Pleistocene)
        7. Early Humans in America and the Eolith Question
    9.  A Recent Eolithic Discovery from India (Miocene)

4. Crude Paleolithic Stone Tools

    1.  The Finds of Carlos Ribeiro in Portugal (Miocene)
        1. A Summary History of Ribeiro's Discoveries
        2. An International Committee Vindicates Ribeiro 
    2.  The Finds of the Abbe Bourgeois at Thenay, France (Miocene)
        1. Debates About the Discoveries at Thenay
        2. Evolution and the Nature of Tertiary Man
        3. Who Made the Flints of Thenay?
    3.  Implements from the Late Miocene of Aurillac, France
        1. A Find by Tardy
        2. Further Discoveries by Rames
        3. Verworn's Expedition to Aurillac
        4. A Footnote on Aurillac
        5. A Final Report
    4.  Discoveries by A. Rutot in Belgium (Oligocene) 
    5.  Discoveries by Freudenberg Near Antwerp
        (Early Pliocene or Late Miocene)
        1. Flint Implements
        2. Cut Shells
        3. Incised Bones
        4. Possible Human Footprints 
        5. The Identity of Freudenberg's Palaeanthropus
    6.  Central Italy (Late Pliocene)
    7.  Stone Tools from Burma (Miocene)
    8.  Tools from Black's Fork River, Wyoming (Middle Pleistocene)

5. Advanced Paleoliths and Neoliths

    1.  Discoveries of Florentino Ameghino in Argentina
        1. Monte Hermoso (Early and Middle Pliocene)
        2. Hrdlicka Attempts to Discredit Ameghino
        3. Willis Stacks the Geological Deck
        4. A Demolition Job by W. H. Holmes
        5. Other Finds by F. Ameghino 
        6. Evidence for the Intentional Use of Fire
        7. Primitive Kilns and Foundries?
        8. Ameghino on the South American Origins of Hominids
    2.  Tools Found by Carlos Ameghino at Miramar (Pliocene)
        1. A Commission of Geologists Confirms Age of Site
        2. A Stone Point Embedded in a Toxodon Femur (Pliocene)
        3. Romero's Critique of the Miramar Site
        4. Boule on the Toxodon Femur with Arrowhead
        5. Boman, the Excellent Ethnographer
    3.  Other Bolas and Bolalike Implements
        1. The Sling Stone from Bramford, England
        (Pliocene to Eocene)
        2. Bolas from Olduvai Gorge (Early Pleistocene)
    4.  Relatively Advanced North American Paleolithic Finds
        1. Sheguiandah: Archeology as a Vendetta
           1. Sanford Presents Evidence in Favor of Lee 
           2. How Lee Was Treated
        2. Lewisville: The Vendetta Goes On (Late Pleistocene)
        3. Timlin, New York (Late Pleistocene)
        4. Hueyatlaco, Mexico (Middle Pleistocene)
           1. The Uranium Series Dating of the Hueyatlaco Site
           2. Other Methods Used for Dating Hueyatlaco and
             El Horno
           3. Negative Reception of the Hueyatlaco Evidence
        5. Sandia Cave, New Mexico (Middle Pleistocene)
    5.  Neolithic Tools from the Tertiary Auriferous Gravels
        of California
        1. The Age of the Auriferous Gravels
        2. Discoveries of Doubtful Age
        3. Tuolumne Table Mountain
        4. Dr. Snell's Collection
        5. The Walton Mortar
        6. The Carvin Hatchet
        7. The Stevens Stone Bead
        8. The Pierce Mortar
        9. The Neale Discoveries 
        10. The King Pestle
        11. Finds at San Andreas and Spanish Creek
        12. Discoveries at Cherokee
        13. Evolutionary Preconceptions of Holmes and Sinclair

6. Anomalous Human Skeletal Remains

    1.  Middle and Early Pleistocene Discoveries
        1. The Trenton Human Bones (Middle Pleistocene)
        2. Some Middle Pleistocene Skeletal Remains from Europe
           1. Galley Hill 
           2. The Moulin Quignon Jaw: A Possible Case
             of Forgery 
           3. The Clichy Skeleton 
           4. La Denise, France 
        3. The Ipswich Skeleton (Middle Middle Pleistocene)
        4. Possible Early Man Sites with No Skeletal Remains 
        5. A Human Skull from the Early Pleistocene
           at Buenos Aires 
        6. The Lagoa Santa Calotte
    2.  Fossil Human Remains from Tertiary Formations 
        1. The Foxhall Jaw (Late Pliocene)
        2. Human Skeletons from Castenedolo, Italy
           (Middle Pliocene)
        3. A Skeleton from Savona, Italy (Middle Pliocene)
        4. A Human Vertebra from Monte Hermoso
           (Early Pliocene)
        5. A Jaw Fragment from Miramar, Argentina
           (Late Pliocene)
        6. Human Skeletal Remains from the California Gold Country
           (Pliocene to Eocene)
           1. The Calaveras Skull
           2. Captain Akey's Report
           3. The Hubbs Skull Fragment 
           4. A Human Jaw from Below Table Mountain 
           5. Human Bones from the Missouri Tunnel 
           6. Dr. Boyce's Discovery
        7. More European Discoveries (Miocene and Eocene) 
    3.  Pre-Tertiary Discoveries
        1. Macoupin, Illinois (Carboniferous)
        2. Human Footprints from the Carboniferous 
        3. A Central Asian Footprint (Jurassic)
    4.  Conclusion


7. Java Man

    1.  Dubois and Pithecanthropus Erectus
        1. Initial Discoveries
        2. The Discoveries at Trinil
        3. Reports Reach Europe
        4. Dubois Journeys to Europe with Java Man
        5. The Selenka Expedition
        6. Dubois Withdraws from the Battle
        7. More Femurs
        8. Are the Trinil Femurs Human?
        9. Dubois Backs Away from His Original Claims
    2.  The Heidelberg Jaw 
    3.  Further Java Man Discoveries by Von Koenigswald
        1. The Ngandong Fossils
        2. First Find at Sangiran
        3. The Role of the Carnegie Institution
        4. Back to Java
        5. A Meeting in Peking
        6. Weidenreich's Reconstruction
        7. More Discoveries by Von Koenigswald
    4.  Later Discoveries in Java
    5.  Chemical and Radiometric Dating
        of the Java Homo Erectus Finds
        1. The Ages of the Kabuh and Putjangan Formations
        2. Chemical Dating of the Trinil Femurs
        3. Uranium Content Testing of the Sangiran Fossils
    6.  Misleading Presentations of the Java Man Evidence

8. The Piltdown Showdown

    1.  Dawson Gets a Skull
    2.  Reactions to Piltdown Man
    3.  A Canine Tooth and Nose Bones
    4.  A Second Dawn Man Discovery
    5.  One Creature or Two?
    6.  The Effect of New Discoveries on Piltdown Man
    7.  Marston's Crusade
    8.  Evidence of Forgery
    9.  Was the Piltdown Skull Genuine?
    10. The Identity of the Forger

9. Peking Man and Other Finds in China

    1.  Discoveries at Choukoutien
        1. The First Teeth
        2. Davidson Black
        3. The Rockefeller Foundation Sends Black to China
        4. Black and the Birth of Sinanthropus 
        5. The Transformation of the Rockefeller Foundation
        6. An Historic Find and a Cold-Blooded Campaign
        7. Evidence for Fire and Stone Tools at Choukoutien
        8. Recent Views
        9. The Fossil Bones of Sinanthropus
           and Signs of Cannibalism
        10. Discoveries in the Upper Cave
        11. Our Knowledge of Peking Man
        12. The Fossils Disappear
        13. An Example of Intellectual Dishonesty
    2.  Other Discoveries in China
        1. Dating by Morphology
        2. Tongzi, Guizhou Province 
        3. Lantian Man
           1. Lantian Man Contemporaneous
              with Beijing Man?
           2. Morphological Dating of Lantian Man
           3. Comparison of Faunal Evidence
              from Gongwangling and Chenjiawo
           4. Paleomagnetic Dates
           5. Comparison of Faunal Evidence
              from Gongwangling and Zhoukoudian
           6. Analysis of Conflicting Opinions
           7. Summary
        4. Maba
        5. Changyang County 
        6. Liujiang
        7. Gigantopithecus
        8. Dali
        9. Summary of Overlapping Date Ranges 
        10. Stone Tools and Hominid Teeth at Yuanmou 
            (Early Early Pleistocene)
        11. Stone Tools at Xihoudu (Early Early Pleistocene)
        12. Concluding Words on China 

10. Living Ape-Men?

    1. Hard Evidence is Hard to Find
    2. Cryptozoology
    3. European Wildmen
    4. Northwestern North America
    5. More Footprints
    6. Central and South America
    7. Yeti: Wildmen of the Himalayas
    8. The Almas of Central Asia
    9. Wildmen of China
    10. Wildmen of Malaysia and Indonesia
    11. Africa
    12. Mainstream Science and Wildman Reports

11. Always Something New Out of Africa

    1. Reck's Skeleton
       1. The Discovery
       2. Leakey's Conversion
       3. Cooper and Watson Launch Their Attack
       4. Reck and Leakey Change Their Minds 
       5. The Radiocarbon Dating of Reck's Skeleton 
       6. Probable Date Range of Reck's Skeleton 
    2. The Kanjera Skulls and Kanam Jaw 
       1. Discovery of the Kanjera Skulls 
       2. Discovery of the Kanam Jaw
       3. A Commission of Scientists Decides 
          on Kanam and Kanjera
       4. Boswell Strikes Again
       5. Leakey Responds
       6. Kanam and Kanjera After Boswell
       7. Morphology of the Kanam Jaw
       8. Chemical Testing of the Kanam 
          and Kanjera Fossils
    3. The Birth of Australopithecus
       1. The Taung Child
       2. Dart Retreats
       3. Broom and Australopithecus 
       4. Paranthropus and Telanthropus
       5. Paranthropus a Toolmaker?
       6. Makapansgat and Final Victory
       7. Controversy Continues 
    4. Leakey and His Luck
       1. Zinjanthropus
       2. Homo Habilis
       3. Leakey's Views on Human Evolution
       4. Evidence for Bone Smashing in the Middle Miocene 
    5. A Tale of Two Humeri
       1. The Kanapoi Humerus
       2. The Gombore Humerus
    6. Richard, Son of Leakey
       1. Skull ER 1470
       2. Evolutionary Significance of the ER 1470 Skull
       3. Humanlike Femurs from Koobi Fora
       4. The ER 813 Talus
       5. The Age of the KBS Tuff
          1. The Potassium-Argon Dating Method
          2. The Potassium-Argon Dating of the KBS Tuff
    7. OH 62: Will the Real Homo Habilis Please Stand Up?
       1. Implications for the ER 1481 and ER 1472 Femurs
       2. The Leap from OH 62 to KNM-WT 15000
       3. Conflicting Assessments 
          of Other Homo Habilis Fossils
          1. The OH 8 Foot
          2. The OH 7 Hand
       4. Cultural Level of Homo Habilis
       5. Does Homo Habilis Deserve to Exist?
    8. Oxnard's Critique of Australopithecus
       1. A Different Picture of Australopithecus
       2. The Pelvis of Australopithecus
       3. Zuckerman and Oxnard on Suppression of Evidence 
       4. Opposition to Statistical Studies
       5. Implications of Uniqueness
       6. Oxnard on the Antiquity of Homo 
    9. Lucy in the Sand With Diatribes 
       1. The Hadar Knee (AL 129)
       2. Alemayehu's Jaws
       3. Lucy
       4. The First Family
       5. Two Hominids at Hadar?
       6. Johanson and White Decide 
          on a Single Hadar Species 
       7. A. Afarensis: Overly Humanized? 
          1. The Skull of Australopithecus Afarensis
          2. Postcranial Anatomy
       8. Opposition to the Single Species Hypothesis
    10. The Laetoli Footprints
    11. Black Skull, Black Thoughts


A1. Chemical and Radiometric Testing of Anomalous Human Skeletal Remains

    1. The Nitrogen Content Test
       1. Nitrogen Content of the Castenedolo, Galley Hill, 
          and La Denise Human Skeletal Remains 
       2. Remarkable Instances of Nitrogen Preservation
       3. Nitrogen Content of the Florisbad and Olmo Skulls 
          with Reference to Castenedolo and Galley Hill
    2. The Fluorine and Uranium Content Tests 
       1. Fluorine Content of the Galley Hill Skeleton
       2. Fluorine Content of the La Denise Bones
       3. Fluorine Content of the Castenedolo Skeletons
       4. Uranium Content of the Castenedolo Bones 
    3. The Carbon 14 Dating of Bones 
       1. Principles of Carbon 14 Dating
       2. The Problem of Contamination
          1. Contamination in the Ground
          2. Contamination During Collection 
             and Storage
       3. The Dating of Laguna Man and Los Angeles Man
       4. Amino Acid Racemization Dating of Bone 
       5. Ages in Chaos: AMS vs. AAR Dating
       6. A Case from Israel 
       7. The Carbon 14 Dating of the Galley Hill Skeleton
       8. The Carbon 14 Dating of the Castenedolo Skeleton
       9. Radiocarbon Dates vs. Stratigraphy: 
          Which is More Reliable?

A2. Evidence for Advanced Culture in Distant Ages

    1. Artifacts from Aix en Provence, France (Age Uncertain)
    2. Letters in Marble Block, Philadelphia (Age Uncertain)
    3. Nail in Devonian Sandstone, North Britain 
    4. Gold Thread in Carboniferous Stone, England
    5. Metallic Vase from Precambrian Rock
       at Dorchester, Massachusetts
    6. A Tertiary Chalk Ball from Laon, France
    7. Objects from Illinois Well Borings (Middle Pleistocene)
    8. A Clay Image from Nampa, Idaho (Plio-Pleistocene)
    9. Gold Chain in Carboniferous Coal from 
       Morrisonville, Illinois
    10. Carved Stone from Lehigh Coal Mine near Webster, Iowa
    11. Iron Cup from Oklahoma Coal Mine (Carboniferous)
    12. A Shoe Sole from Nevada (Triassic)
    13. Block Wall in an Oklahoma Mine (Carboniferous?)
    14. Late Twentieth Century Discoveries 
        1. Metallic Tubes from Chalk in France (Cretaceous)
        2. Shoe Print in Shale from Utah (Cambrian) 
        3. Grooved Sphere from South Africa (Precambrian) 

A3. Summary of Anomalous Evidence Related to Human Antiquity


List of Tables

List of Illustrations


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